Table of Contents

**Definition of Centrifugal Force**

Centrifugal force is a fictional outward force experienced by an item travelling in a circular direction away from the center of rotation.

- Centrifugal force is directed away from the axis of rotation and parallel to the axis of rotation.
- The magnitude and dimensions of centrifugal force are the same as those of another force (centripetal) acting towards the centre of a circular path.
- It is referred as a fictional force since it only appears when there is a centripetal force. This force is caused by the body’s inertial property as it moves in a circular direction.
- The force, though, is affected by the mass of the object, its distance from the center, and the rotational speed.
- Centrifugal force has indeed been employed in a variety of rotating equipment such as centrifuge rotors, banked highways, and centrifugal pumps.
- Newton is the unit of centrifugal force, and the dimensional formula is M
^{1}L^{1}T^{-2}.

**Centrifugal Force Formula **

The formula for calculating centrifugal force is shown below.

If the velocity of the moving object is known, the centrifugal force may be calculated using the formula below:

where v is the moving body’s velocity, r is the moving body’s distance from the center, and m is the moving body’s mass

If the angular velocity of the moving item is known, the centrifugal force may be calculated using the formula:

where **ω** is the angular velocity, r is the moving body’s distance from the center, and m is the moving body’s mass.

**Centrifugal Force Principle**

- As previously stated, the centrifugal force is fictional or pseudo since it exists only if there is a centripetal force.
- When a passenger automobile turns the wheel, the vehicle is propelled by centripetal force, which operates on all elements of the vehicle.
- When the vehicle begins to turn, the passengers in the automobile keep their freedom of movement and so maintain a straight course.
- As a result, the passengers shift to the edge of the seat, near the door, delivering the centripetal force to them.
- The occupants experience centrifugal force as they move away from the car.
- According to Newton’s second law of motion, acceleration is caused by force, hence this is not a true force according to Newton’s law of motion.
- When a stone at the end of a rope linked to a pole on the ground is rotated, the direction of the stone’s velocity changes constantly, causing acceleration.
- If the string snaps, the stone keeps its inertia and moves in a straight line parallel to the circular path.
- When centrifugal force exists, the stone would move in an outward rather than tangential direction.

**What is the formula for calculating centrifugal force?**

Let us use the same example of the stone at the end of the string connected to a pole for this. The following methods can be taken to compute the centrifugal force experienced by the stone:

- Determine the stone’s mass (m). Assume the mass is 5 kg.
- Find out the string’s length. Assume the length is 10 m.
- Find out the stone’s velocity. Let’s say the tangential force is 5 m/s. Tangential velocity (v) or angular velocity () can be used to describe velocity. The tangential velocity can be computed if the velocity is the angular velocity:

**v = ω × r**

4. Using the following formula, calculate the centrifugal force:

As a result, the centrifugal force is 12.5 N.

**Centrifugal force applications**

Despite the fact that Newton’s law does not regard centrifugal force to be real, it has a variety of applications:

- Centrifuges operate on the principle of centrifugal force. The centrifugal force of the rotors causes a hydrostatic pressure gradient in the tubes perpendicular to the axis of rotation. As a consequence, larger buoyant forces push less dense particles inwards while pushing denser particles out. Particles can be separated using this technique based on their densities.
- A centrifugal governor is a system that maintains an engine’s speed by moving the fuel or working liquid radially due to centrifugal force.
- Centrifugal forces are employed to produce artificial gravity in spinning space stations. These stations aid in the simulation of gravity’s effects on other plants.
- Centrifugal force is also used in washing machine dryers, where the spinning of the rotor of a washing machine generates centrifugal force, causing the garments to migrate away from the center. As a result, the water is forced out of the wet clothes through the chamber’s apertures.
- In amusement park rides, centrifugal forces are used to press riders against the wall, enabling the passengers to be hoisted above the bottom of the machines.

**Centrifugal force examples**

Centrifugal force can be observed in a variety of processes in our daily lives; some examples are provided below:

- The force pushing on the occupants in a car outwards as the automobile is turning is an example of centrifugal force.
- Whenever a stone on a string is spun in a circle, the force generated on the hands is also due to centrifugal force.
- Since the centrifugal force acting on particles near the equator is greatest, the globe is flattened at the pole and bulged at the equator.
- If a bucket full of water is turned in a circle, the water does not fall because the centrifugal force acting on the bucket balances the weight of the bucket.
- As an outcome of centrifugal force, mud lodged on car wheels is propelled tangentially towards the mudguard.

Image Source: Wikia.

**Difference between Centripetal and Centrifugal Forces**

**(Centripetal Vs Centrifugal Force)**

**Centrifugal Forces Citations **

- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Centrifugal_force_(rotating_reference_frame)
- https://www.scienceabc.com/nature/what-is-centripetal-acceleration-what-is-centrifugal-force.html
- https://www.sarthaks.com/204136/stone-tied-string-length-whirled-vertical-circle-with-the-other-end-the-string-the-centre
- https://www.reference.com/science/centripetal-force-involved-operation-washing-machine-ee15394203b35628
- https://www.meritnation.com/ask-answer/question/a-stone-tied-at-the-end-of-string-is-whirled-in-a-circle-if/laws-of-motion/7284551
- https://www.ielts-mentor.com/writing-sample/writing-task-2/1313-ielts-writing-task-2-sample-323-the-private-motor-vehicle-has-greatly-improved-individual-freedom-of-movement
- https://www.britannica.com/science/centrifugal-force
- https://www.answers.com/Q/What_does_the_mass_of_an_object_depend_on
- https://wikimili.com/en/Centrifugal_force
- https://thenewtonslaw.com/what-is-newtons-second-law-of-motion/
- https://in.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20080210081429AA8WTcC
- https://byjus.com/physics/centripetal-and-centrifugal-force/
- https://brainly.in/question/8429538
- http://bioedonline.org/lessons-and-more/lessons-by-topic/plants-form-function/how-does-gravity-affect-root-growth/

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