**Lineweaver–Burk Plot**

- Because V
_{max}is attained at endless substrate concentration, estimating Vmax and thus Km from a hyperbolic plot is impossible. - Due to this issue, Lineweaver and Burk modified the Michaelis–Menten equation into a straight line equation.
- The Lineweaver–Burk plot (also known as the double reciprocal plot) is a pictorial depiction of the Lineweaver–Burk equation of enzyme kinetics, which was presented by Hans Lineweaver and Dean Burk in 1934.
- This figure is derived from the Michaelis–Menten equation and is denoted as follows:

**where V represents the reaction velocity (reaction rate), Km denotes the Michaelis–Menten constant, V _{max} denotes the maximum reaction velocity, and [S] denotes the substrate concentration.**

- It produces a straight line with a y-axis intercept of 1/V
_{max}and an x-axis intercept of K_{m}/V_{max}. The slope of the line is equal to K_{m}/V_{max}. - V
_{max }and K_{m}can be calculated experimentally by measuring V_{0}at various substrate concentrations. Then, for 1/V_{0}vs 1/[S], a double reciprocal or Lineweaver–Burk plot is generated.

- A Lineweaver–Burk plot can be used to discriminate between competitive and noncompetitive reversible enzyme inhibitors.
- It is an effective method for determining how an inhibitor interacts to an enzyme.
- If V0 is measured at multiple substrate concentrations in the presence of a fixed dose of inhibitor, a Lineweaver–Burk plot can be used to detect competitive inhibition.
- On the Lineweaver–Burk plot, a competitive inhibitor increases the slope of the line and changes the intercept on the x-axis (because K
_{m}is increased), but leaves the intercept on the y-axis unaltered (since V_{max}remains constant). - Noncompetitive inhibition can also be identified on a Lineweaver–Burk plot because it raises the slope of the experimental line and changes the intercept on the y-axis (due to a drop in V
_{max}), but leaves the intercept on the x-axis unaltered (since K_{m}remains constant).

**Uses of Lineweaver–Burk Plot**

- Before the widespread availability of powerful computers and non-linear regression software, this method was used to calculate crucial parameters in enzyme kinetics, such as K
_{m}and V_{max}. - Provides a rapid graphic representation of the various types of enzyme inhibition.

**Lineweaver–Burk Plot Citations **

- David Hames and Nigel Hooper (2005). Biochemistry. Third ed. Taylor & Francis Group: New York.
- Smith, C. M., Marks, A. D., Lieberman, M. A., Marks, D. B., & Marks, D. B. (2005). Marks’ basic medical biochemistry: A clinical approach. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lineweaver%E2%80%93Burk_plot

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