Definition of Monocot Flower
Monocot flowers are compressed shoot areas with particular sexual reproductive functions.
- The greatest distinguishing feature of monocot flowers is that their flower parts are frequently arranged in threes or multiples of threes.
- The analysis of flowers and their components can therefore be used to distinguish among monocot and dicot plants.
- Despite the fact that almost all monocot plants have an identical floral pattern, the colour, size, structure, as well as anatomical organization of the flowers differ widely between species.
- Monocot flowers are identical to dicot flowers in that they have vegetative and reproductive portions.
- The calyx and corolla are the vegetative components of the flower, and they guard the reproductive organs while also appealing pollinators. Because the blossoms are small and light, many monocot flowers are pollinated by water and wind.
- The calyx and corolla of certain monocot flowers are indistinguishable, as well as a structural perianth is present.
- The majority of monocot flowers are entire flowers, meaning they have every four floral members. The quantity and organization of the parts, on the other hand, may differ.
- A bract is the portion of the stalk from which the blooms emerge. The length of the flower stalk, known as a pedicel, determines the size of the bloom.
- Thalamus is the broad upper section of the pedicel where the floral components are located. The size of the thalamus differs between species including within a single plant, based on the flowering stage.
Dicot Flower Definition
The reproductive component of the plant, the dicot flower, is defined by the existence of floral parts in multiples of four or five.
- Plants are classified as monocot or dicot based on the number of flower components or floral leaves. Because some plants’ flowers are smaller or have multiple sections, distinction may not always be reliable.
- All four whorls of the flower are present in dicot blooms, which are generally full and unisexual.
- The existence of triporate pollen structure, which has three furrows or pores within the pollen, is yet another crucial indicator of dicot flower difference.
- In dicot plants, and even within the same species, flower colour, shape, symmetry, and size vary. Radial and bilateral symmetry are the two main general types of symmetry in dicot flowers.
- Because sexual reproduction is perhaps the most vital role of flowers, their form can indeed be altered to suit the plant’s reproductive habits.
- The bract portion of the stem, that is linked to the stem via the pedicel, is where dicot flowers appear. The pedicel is a long stalk that holds the various elements of the flower together.
- Because dicot flowers are huge and colourful, they are commonly pollinated by insects and animals.
Monocot and Dicot Flower Structure
The parts of monocot and dicot blooms are the identical, but the quantity and arrangement of the parts may differ. The following sections make up the structure of monocot and dicot flowers:
- Petals are the individual petals that make up the second whorl of a flower’s corolla. The whorl is found on top of the calyx, that is the flower’s first whorl.
- Petals are thin, delicate, and coloured flower leaves that are used to attract pollinators such as animals as well as insects.
- The primary purpose of petals is to attract various pollinators for pollination as well as to guard the flower’s reproductive units.
- The shape as well as size of the petals in the flower may or may not be uniform. Asymmetrical flowers have petals that are uniform in size and shape, whereas symmetrical flowers have petals that are varied sizes and shapes.
- Gamopetalous refers to a situation in which petals are fused together to create a single unit in some flowers.
- On the basis of the number of petals, monocot and dicot plants can be distinguished. The number of petals in dicots is four, five, or their multiples. The number of petals in monocots is three or multiples of three.
- Monocot and dicot flowers are distinguished by the number of petals they have.
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(b) The stamen
- Stamens, which are physically identical to microsporophylls, are the male reproductive organs of flowers.
- The androecium, which makes up the third whorl of the flower, is made up of stamens. The androecium’s stamens can be fertile or sterile. Pollen grains are produced by fertile stamens, while caked staminodes are produced by sterile stamens.
- Some plants may even have stamens that resemble petals in colour. These are known as petaloid stamens and can be found in plants such as Canna.
Monocots have three or multiples of three stamens, each of which has two separate components.
1 . Anther
- The anther is the fertile end of a stamen that contains microsporangia, that create as well as accumulate microspores or pollen grains.
- A single anther contains separate microsporangia which create pockets or sacs in the anther (also known as anther sacs or pollen sacs). Various plants have different numbers of microsporangia.
- The pollen mother cells are encased in a coating of nutritive tissue known as tapetum that lines the microsporangium.
- To generate haploid microspores, the cells go through meiosis cell division. Individual microspores or tetrads of microspores can exist.
- The pollen grain is formed when the microspore splits mitotically to generate an immature microgametophyte.
- The anther has a hole that allows the pollen grains to be released. The pollen grains also feature apertures or furrows that are essential for fertilisation to be successful.
- Depending on the number of furrows found on the pollen grains, monocot and dicot blooms can be distinguished. Pollen grains from monocots contain only one opening or furrow, while pollen grains from dicots contain three different furrows or apertures.
- The filament is a stalk which joins the anther to the other flower parts. A connective, that is an extension of the filament made up of conducting strands, connects the filament to the anther.
- A sole filament is at all times connected to a sole anther, forming the stamen.
(c) The pistil (Carpel)
- The female reproductive component of plants, the pistil or carpel, is centrally positioned and makes up the core or deepest whorl of the flower.
- Pistil is physically alike the megasporophyll, which transports the female reproductive gametes that make up the gynoecium in plants. One or more distinct pistils may make up the gynoecium.
- The pistil is made up of carpels, which might be one carpel with the ovary along with other structures or several carpels united jointly with a single ovary in a single pistil.
The pistil is made up of the following components:
1 . The stigma
- During pollination, the stigma is the apical spherical or flat portion of the pistil that obtains the pollen.
- To catch pollen grains, the stigma is generally sticky or feathery. Pollen grains land on the stigma and then travel to different parts of the pistil.
- Style is pistil’s long pillar-like stalk that houses the pollen tube that transports pollen grains from the stigma to the ovary.
- Certain plants may lack a style because the stigma rests directly on the ovary.
- When present, the style is a hollow tube which allows a pollen tube to develop during fertilisation.
- The ovary is the enlarged basal region of the pistil that is made up of ridges of tissues that contain one or more eggs or ovules.
- Ovules are kept in the locule or cell, which is a chamber in the ovary. The gynoecial appendages are where the ovules are born.
(d) The Sepal
- The sepal is a component of the calyx, that is a vegetative element of the flower which shields the flower inside the bud and at the end of its life cycle.
- The calyx, which is the flower’s outermost whorl, is made up of sepals. The calyx is conspicuous during the flower’s bud stage, but after flowering, it either withers or becomes vestigial.
- The sepals, like the petals, are modified leaves that, along with the petals, make up the perianth’s outer sterile half.
- Amount of sepals found in a flower is referred to as its merosity, and it is used to classify plants into distinct groupings.
- When the sepal and petal of a plant are the same colour or when the sepals are colourful but the petals are lacking, the term tepal is used.
- The swollen section of the pedicel to which various elements of the flower are connected is known as the receptacle or torus.
- The receptacle may produce an edible component of the fruit in some flowers, while it is diminished in others following fertilisation.
- The pedicel, which is made up of the same tissues as the stem, is the stalk that joins the flower to the stem.
- Certain flowers lack a pedicel and are referred to as sessile blooms because they are directly linked to the stem or branches.
Monocot and Dicot Flower Functions
The roles of monocot and dicot flowers are as follows:
- Flowers of various colours and shapes attract various pollinators, such as insects plus animals, for pollination.
- Flowers are the flower’s reproductive units, which are required for sexual reproduction in plants.
- Flowers are frequently utilised as ornaments or decorative objects at various cultural ceremonies and rituals.
- Certain plants’ flowers may include nectar, that offers sustenance for various insects, who subsequently aid in pollen grain transportation.
- Flowers likely turn into fruits, that are consumed as a source of food and nutrition.
Difference between Monocot Flower and Dicot Flower
(Monocot Flower Vs Dicot Flower)
|Characteristics||Monocot Flower||Dicot Flower|
Monocot flowers are confined shoot areas with particular sexual reproductive functions.
The reproductive component of the plant, the dicot flower, is distinguished by the occurrence of parts of flower in multiples of four or five.
|Number of flower parts|
The flower components of a monocot flower are arranged in threes or multiples of threes.
Flower components in dicot flowers are found in multiples of four and five.
|Petals||Monocot blooms have three or six petals, depending on the species. The petals may be merged in some situations.|
Dicot flowers have four or five petals, or multiples of those numbers.
Monocot blooms feature a single pore or furrow in their pollen grains.
Dicot flower pollen grains feature three holes or furrows.
A perianth can be found on several monocot plants (undifferentiated calyx and corolla).
The calyx and corolla of dicot plants are distinct.
|Pollination||The majority of monocot flowers are pollinated by the wind.||The majority of dicot flowers are pollinated by insects.|
Monocot Flower Examples
- Tulips are a vast family of flowering plants with around 3000 different types. Tulips come in almost every colour except blue.
- Tulips vary in size, shape, and form according on the variety. Tulips, on the other hand, are typically cup-shaped flowers.
- Tulip blooms have six smooth or ruffled petals on each flower. The petals of some tulips are single-colored, while those of others are striped, swirling, or faded at the edges.
- Six sepal units are found at the bottom of the bloom once the flower has reached its full potential.
- Tepals or perianths may replace distinct petals and sepals in some tulip species.
- The existence of a perianth as well as a corona distinguishes daffodil flowers from most monocot flowers.
- The corona is the cup-shaped area of the bloom that distinguishes it from other flowers and adds to its beauty.
- The corona is a delicate, soft petal-like structure that surrounds the stamens and has frilled edges.
- A perianth is made up of six petals that are joined together. The perianth envelops the corona, forming a trumpet-shaped flower.
Dicot Flower Examples
1 . Sunflower
- A flower head with separate disc flowers makes up a sunflower flower, and the disc flowers are in various phases of growth.
- Flower’s colourful external layer is made up of ray flowers, which have five elongated petals that are joined together to make straplike structures.
- The ray blooms are normally golden, but they can also be orange-yellow or reddish in colour.
- Disk flowers make up the rest of the flower, which has a big discoidal head. The term floret refers to a single disc flower.
- The petal and stamen are connected to the ovary in epigynous florets. A pointed bract, a basal ovary, and scales surround each of the florets. The florets’ corolla is made up of five fused petals.
- The florets are organised in radiating arcs from the centre of the head in the head.
2. Marigold Flower
- A marigold flower is a complex cluster of blooms containing disc florets and ray blossoms.
- Ray flowers make up the flower’s outermost section. The ray blooms have stamen connected to them and are usually darker in colour.
- The disc florets are located in the centre of the flower, which is lighter in colour and has a solitary stamen in the centre.
- The ray florets and disc florets are all joined at the receptacle, which is located near the base of the flower. The fused calyx covers the receptacle and the lower tubular part of the flowers.
Monocot Flower and Dicot Flower Citations
- Scutt, Charlie P, and Michiel Vandenbussche. “Current trends and future directions in flower development research.” Annals of botany 114,7 (2014): 1399-406. doi:10.1093/aob/mcu224
- Seiler, G.J. (1997). Anatomy and Morphology of Sunflower. In Sunflower Technology and Production, A.A. Schneiter (Ed.). https://doi.org/10.2134/agronmonogr35.c3
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